Management Theories

What type of manager would you like to be know as? Someone who micro manages or someone who inspires or someone with leadership and command? Managing your team or resources can be a daunting task as the team member’s personalities differs. In my experience I found success while dealing with each resources on a case by case basis by focusing on their personalities, needs and expectations. For instance I have seen a team member completely content with their current job while another member is quite restless and is looking to progress their career on a fast track whereas the third person is partly happy with their current situation and would like to seek more opportunity within or outside of the organization.

There are several known theories managers adopt while working with their team of which few are discussed below.

  1. Expectancy Theory – The employees are often motivated by the positive outcomes and rewards related to exceptional work they did or by performing work that exceeds expectations.
  2. Hygiene Theory – This theory takes into fact how employees feel about their pay, compensation, benefits and work conditions.  Obviously these are some very important criteria that employees consider for being satisfied.
  3. Theory of Needs (McClelland) – The theory assumes that people are motivated either by power, achievement or affiliation and they should be managed accordingly to the category they fall under.
  4. Maslow’s Hierarchy – People climb up the pyramid by fulfilling the lowest level and moving up. The bottommost and the first level is “Physiological” where the basic needs like food, shelter, water are fulfilled. The next level is “Safety” where people feel safe and secure at their work. There is then “Social” level where employees like to be surrounded by people they like and are comfortable to work with. Next is “Esteem” where employees will be admired for their work by their co-workers and accepted as an important part of the team. The last one is “Self-Actualization” where people learn to live their life by their true nature and capabilities and that they will be happy to perform the tasks that they would like to and not what they dislike and is imposed upon them.
  5. Theory Z – This theory takes loyalty into consideration and suggests that job security will mean a higher satisfaction level and desire to contribute in a positive way.
  6. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y – Theory X suggests that managers think that all people dislike work and that they should be micromanaged to get desired output. Theory Y suggests that people are self-motivated and that they need minimal supervision and guidance to get their work done.